# Homework 2

## Template

Type the following command at the terminal to copy the template file to the current directory (note the period at the end):

cp ~cs61as/autograder/templates/hw2.rkt .


Or you can download the template here.

If you are working on the lab computers, the grader command will run the autograder. If you are working on your own personal machine, you should download grader.rkt and the HW 2 tests.

## Exercise 1

Write a procedure substitute that takes three arguments: a sentence, an old word, and a new word. It should return a copy of the sentence, but with every occurrence of the old word replaced by the new word.

-> (substitute '(she loves you yeah yeah yeah) 'yeah 'maybe)
(she loves you maybe maybe maybe)


## Exercise 2

Type each of the following into Racket, and note the results. See if you can predict the results before letting Racket do the computation.

(lambda (x) (+ x 3))

((lambda (x) (+ x 3)) 7)


make-adder is a function that returns another function.

(define (make-adder num)
(lambda (x) (+ x num)))

(define plus3 (make-adder 3))
(plus3 7)

(define (square x) (* x x))
(square 5)

(define sq (lambda (x) (* x x)))
(sq 5)

(define (try f) (f 3 5))
(try +)
(try word)


## Exercise 3

Consider a function g for which the expression

((g) 1)

returns the value 3 when evaluated.

Determine how many arguments g has. In one word, also describe as best you can the type of value returned by g.

## Exercise 4

For each of the following expressions, what must f be in order for the evaluation of the expression to succeed, without causing an error? For each expression, give a definition of f such that evaluating the expression will not cause an error, and say what the expression's value will be, given your definition. To be clear, for number one, define f1, for number 2, define f2, etc.

1. f1
2. (f2)
3. (f3 3)
4. ((f4))
5. (((f5)) 3)

## Exercise 5

Find the values of the following expressions, where add1 is a primitive procedure that adds one to its argument, and t is defined as follows:

(define (t f)
(lambda (x) (f (f (f x)))) )


Work these out before trying them on the computer.

1. ((t add1) 0)
2. ((t (t add1)) 0)
3. (((t t) add1) 0)

## Exercise 6

Find the values of the following expressions where t is defined as in Exercise 5, and s is defined as follows:

(define (s x)
(+ 1 x))


Work these out before trying them on the computer

1. ((t s) 0)
2. ((t (t s)) 0)
3. (((t t) s) 0)

## Exercise 7

Write and test the make-tester procedure. Given a word w as its argument, make-tester returns a procedure of one argument x that returns true if x is equal to w and false otherwise.

-> ((make-tester 'hal) 'hal)
#t
-> ((make-tester 'hal) 'cs61a)
#f
-> (define sicp-author-and-astronomer? (make-tester 'gerry))
-> (sicp-author-and-astronomer? 'hal)
#f
-> (sicp-author-and-astronomer? 'gerry)
#t


## Exercise 8

Complete SICP exercises 1.31a, 1.32a, 1.33, 1.40, 1.41, and 1.43. For some of these problems, you will need to read parts of the SICP text.

• For 1.31a, you should base your product function off of the sum function earlier in the text. It should take four arguments (term, a, next, and b). Find the sum function and figure out what each of these arguments does.
• For 1.31a, the function to estimate pi should be called estimate-pi (see template). It should take in no arguments, and it should estimate pi using at least 100 terms of the formula given.
• For 1.33, the predicate should be the last argument to filtered-accumulate (see template).
• For 1.33, you should define functions sum-sq-prime and prod-of-some-numbers (see template).
• For 1.40, don't worry about learning Newton's method. Simply complete cubic, which takes in three arguments (a, b, and c) and returns another procedure. This procedure should take an input x and evaluate the cubic shown in the problem at x.
• For 1.43, name your procedure my-repeated instead of repeated (see template).

## Exercise 9

Last week you wrote procedure squares, that squared each number in its argument sentence, and saw pigl-sent, that pigled each word in its argument sentence. Generalize this pattern to create a higher order procedure called my-every that applies an arbitrary procedure, given as an argument, to each word of an argument sentence.

-> (my-every square '(1 2 3 4))
(1 4 9 16)
-> (my-every first '(nowhere man))
(n m)


## Exercise 10

Using the higher order functions, our simply-scheme library provides its own versions of the every function from the last exercise and the keep function shown in our lessons. Get familiar with these by working these examples out before trying them on the computer:

1. (every (lambda (letter) (word letter letter)) 'purple)
2. (every (lambda (n) (if (even? n) (word n n) n)) '(781 5 76 909 24))
3. (keep even? '(781 5 76 909 24))
4. (keep (lambda (letter) (member? letter 'aeiou)) 'bookkeeper)
5. (keep (lambda (letter) (member? letter 'aeiou)) 'syzygy)
6. (keep (lambda (letter) (member? letter 'aeiou)) '(purple syzygy))
7. (keep (lambda (wd) (member? 'e wd)) '(purple syzygy))

## Submit Your Homework!

For instructions, see this guide. It covers basic terminal commands and assignment submission.

If you have any trouble submitting, do not hesitate to ask a TA!